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“In the course of my research, I concluded that the GSF is probably the most effective framework for 
primary-secondary-tertiary integration” 

Janet Dunbrack Health Policy Consultant 


Evidence of GSF

 Research and  Evaluations of GSF .Since 2000, there have been extensive research studies, publications and evaluations of GSF in different settings, building the evidence base for GSF and integration into best practice policy in the UK. This was particularly important in the early days of use of GSF within GP practices, to support it becoming part of national policy , but also later for other settings.


Some key papers , both those often cited as evidence  in GSF training or published about GSF, are included in the Key Papers section below , with others in the relevant sections  for each setting , including Summaries of Evidence for each area . Examples of magazine, non-peer reviewed and grey literature articles also are included .

Literature Search

There have been several Literature Searches for aspects of GSF  for various purposes .

One example of an extensive  literature search by Stafford University is included below,
The Frontrunner Papers are a summary of attainments of a sample of the GSF Accredited teams in the UK, demonstrating what is possible to achieve in practice,  as an encouragement and inspiration to others.

This follows specific examples of comparative evaluations reports  from GSF Accredited Primary Care teams, Care Homes and Hospitals, with  quotes from the teams on the impact of doing GSF in their workplace.

More details are available on request and from the GSF -UK team.

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For Specific Settings;

Key Papers

Population Based Editorial  BJGP Thomas, Gray GSF

Pall Med Short report GSF1 Noble Thomas March 27th

PC GSF  Critical Review Improving EOLC 

Developing primary palliative care Murray BMJ

BMJ GSF End of Life J-2016-Clifford-

Badger et al Care Homes Pall Med paper 2009 5021

Caring Times 2017 

Imminence of death amongst hospital patients Clarke 2014 

Prospective study of prevalence of patients with GSF criteria in hospital- Milnes et al Geelong, Australia 

RCNi - Nursing Management - Quinn B, Thomas K - March 2017

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GSF Overview

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Population-based, person-centred 'end of life' care

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Gold Standards in Primary Care

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GSF Front Runners

GSF Front Runners Papers

Front Runners In Care Homes

Front Runners In Primary Care

Front Runners In Hospitals

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Frontrunners in Primary Care

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All Settings

How GSF Improves Outcomes in All Settings

Summary papers  submitted to 2018 NICE consultation of GSF improvements in practice , for 2019 NICE Guidance in EOLC Service Delivery See NICE Guidance here 

Evidence that GSF improves identification

Evidence that GSF Improves ACP in different settings

Evidence that GSF reduces hospitalisation

Evidence that GSF Improves coordination of care


2019 NICE Guidance in EOLC Service Delivery NICE Guidance

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Primary Care

Primary Care

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BMJ Editorial - Population-based person-centered EoLC: time for a rethink

BMJ article on primary care accreditation

Summary of evidence - Primary Care - September 2016

2019 comprehensive systematic review on use of GSF in primary care

Summary Evidence September 2016

2010 /11 national primary care snapshot audit

EAPC Madrid 2017 - primary care

Abstract primary care

Care Homes

Care Homes

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Summary of evidence - Care Homes - October 2016

How GSF can help care homes attain enhanced level

How GSF helps improve GP Collaboration

Dementia and GSF

Abstract -  Care Homes EAPC 2017 

Abstract re accredited care homes 2017 

Domiciliary Care

Domiciliary Care

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Abstract -  Domiciliary Homes

Abstract Domiciliary Care

EAPC Berlin 2019 - domiciliary care poster

Acute Hospitals

Acute Hospitals

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GSF care accredited practices

Acute Hospital Report - Phase 1

Acute Hospital Report - Phase 2

Acute Hospital Report - Phase 3

Acute Hospital Report - Phase 4

EAPC Berlin 2019 - acute hospital poster

Abstract Acute Hospitals

EAPC Madrid 2017 - hospitals

Abstract GSF community hospitals

Integrated Cross Boundary Care

Integrated Cross Boundary Care
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Cross boundary care summary information sheet

Abstract cross boundary care

EAPC Berlin 2019 - Jersey Project - cross boundary care

Abstract Jersey Project - Quality Improvement

GSF in Jersey

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Dementia Care

Dementia Care

Abstract dementia EAPC Abstract 2017 

International Articles

International Articles

International Articles Raubenheimer et al. BMC Palliative Care

General GSF Literature Section

General GSF Literature Section

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Download the file and save it to an appropriate place on your computer.

To unzip the file double click it in any Windows PC.  This creates new folders with all the downloaded documents.

Introduction to GSF Literature Review

Part A GSF Literature Search Tabulated account of reviewed published articles Sept 2013

Part B GSF Literature Search citations Tabulated account of reviewed published articles

Tabulated newspaper articles obtained via LexisNexi

GSF NICE Database Search

Media and News Articles

Media and News Articles

Articles published from grey literature, journals, sector magazines  etc 

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